Neuropathic pain, resulting from somatosensory nervous system dysfunction, remains a serious public health problem worldwide. microRNAs are involved in the physiological processes of neuropathic pain. However, the biological roles of miR-98 in neuropathic pain development have not been investigated. Therefore, in our current study, we focused on the effects of miR-98 in neuropathic pain. It was shown that miR-98 was significantly downregulated in chronic sciatic nerve injury (CCI) rat models. In addition, high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) was obviously upregulated in CCI rats. Overexpression of miR-98 inhibited neuropathic pain progression, including mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. By a bioinformatics analysis, HMGA2 was predicted as a direct target of miR-98. The negative correlation between miR-98 and HMGA2 was validated in our present study. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-98 dramatically repressed HMGA2 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Neuroinflammation participates in neural-immune interactions, which can contribute to the neuropathic pain development. Meanwhile, we found that inflammatory cytokine (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and COX-2) protein expression in rats infected with LV-miR-98 was greatly suppressed. Taking these results together, we concluded that miR-98 might depress neuropathic pain development through modulating HMGA2.