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IgG and IgE Autoantibodies to IgE Receptors in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria and Their Role in the Response to Omalizumab.

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the recurrence of unprovoked transient wheals and itch for more than 6 weeks. Currently, there is an unmet need concerning response prediction in CSU. The present study investigated biomarkers of type I and type IIb autoimmunity as potential predictors of response to omalizumab in CSU. Differences in levels of IgG and IgE autoantibodies targeting the high- and low-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI and FcεRII, respectively), as well as spontaneous and specifically triggered leukotriene C (LTC)4 release by basophils from the investigated subjects, were evaluated in 18 consecutive, prospectively enrolled CSU patients and 18 age- and sex-matched, healthy non-atopic controls. The patients with CSU had higher levels of anti-FcεRI IgE (542 (386.25-776.5) vs. 375 (355-418), optical density (OD), = 0.008), and IgG (297 (214.5-431.25) vs. 193.5 (118-275) OD, = 0.004) autoantibodies relative to the controls. Simultaneous anti-FcεRI IgG and IgE positivity (i.e., both autoantibody levels above the respective cut-offs) was recorded only in late- and non-responders (3/8 and 1/2, respectively). Significantly higher anti-FcεRI IgE autoantibody levels were found in the CSU patients as compared to the controls, supporting FcεRI as an autoallergic target of IgE (autoallergen) in the complex pathophysiological scenario of CSU. The co-occurrence of anti-FcεRI IgG and IgE autoantibodies was documented only in late- and non-responders, but not in early ones, crediting the co-existence of autoimmune and autoallergic mechanisms as a driver of late/poor response to omalizumab.

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Footedness for scratching itchy eyes in rodents.

The neural bases of itchy eye transmission remain unclear compared with those involved in body itch. Here, we show in rodents that the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) of the trigeminal sensory system is involved in the transmission of itchy eyes. Interestingly, we further demonstrate a difference in scratching behaviour between the left and right hindfeet in rodents; histamine instillation into the conjunctival sac of both eyes revealed right-foot biased laterality in the scratching movements. Unilateral histamine instillation specifically induced neural activation in the ipsilateral sensory pathway, with no significant difference between the activations following left- and right-eye instillations. Thus, the behavioural laterality is presumably due to right-foot preference in rodents. Genetically modified rats with specific depletion of expressing neurons in the trigeminal sensory nucleus caudalis of the medulla oblongata exhibited fewer and shorter histamine-induced scratching movements than controls and eliminated the footedness. These results taken together indicate that the -expressing neurons are required for the transmission of itch sensation from the eyes, but that foot preference is generated centrally. These findings could open up a new field of research on the mechanisms of the laterality in vertebrates and also offer new potential therapeutic approaches to refractory pruritic eye disorders.

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Trial of Intravenous Immune Globulin in Dermatomyositis.

Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for the treatment of dermatomyositis has not been extensively evaluated.

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Comparison of aprepitant versus desloratadine for EGFR-TKI-induced pruritus: A randomized phase 2 clinical trial.

Pruritus is one of the most common and challenging side effects of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and has impaired patients' quality of life and treatment compliance. Our study evaluated the efficacy and safety of aprepitant in managing EGFR-TKIs-related pruritus.

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National Information Campaign Revealed Disease Characteristic and Burden in Adult Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease often associated with a significant impairment in the quality of life of affected patients. The Italian Society of Dermatology and Venereology (SIDeMaST) planned a national information campaign, providing direct access to 27 dermatologic centers dedicated to the management of AD. The aim of this study aimed was to outline critical aspects related to AD in the general population. Overall, 643 adult subjects were included in this study, and in 44.2% (284/643) of cases, a diagnosis of AD was confirmed, whereas about 55% of subjects were affected by other pruritic cutaneous diseases. Higher intensity of pruritus and sleep disturbance, as well as an increased interference in sport, work, and social confidence was reported in the AD group compared to the non-AD group. In the AD subgroup, the mean duration of disease was of 15.3 years, with a mean eczema area and severity index (EASI) score of 11.2, and investigator global assessment (IGA) score of 1.9 and an itch numeric rating scale (NRS) of 6.9. Almost 32% of patients were untreated, either with topical or systemic agents, whereas 44.3% used routine topical compounds (topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors), and only 7.0% of patients were systemically treated. Only 2.8% of patients reported complete satisfaction with the treatment received for AD to date. This study reveals a profound unmet need in AD, showing a poorly managed and undertreated patient population despite a high reported burden of disease. This suggests the usefulness of information campaigns with the goal of improving patient awareness regarding AD and facilitating early diagnosis and access to dedicated healthcare institutions.

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A randomized, observer-blind, vehicle-control, multi-center clinical investigation for assessing the efficacy and tolerability of a 1% ectoine and hyaluronic acid 0.1%-containing medical device in pediatric patients with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis

Ectoine is a widespread osmolyte enabling halophilic bacteria to withstand high osmotic stress that has many potential applications ranging from cosmetics to its use as a therapeutic agent.

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Efficacy of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Preventing Dermatitis in Patients With Breast Cancer Receiving Postoperative Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

Safe and effective prophylactic therapies for radiation-induced dermatitis (RID) remain an unmet need.

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Real-World Effectiveness of Dupilumab in Atopic Dermatitis Patients: Analysis of an Electronic Medical Records Dataset.

While the efficacy of dupilumab for the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) has been demonstrated in several clinical trials, patients in such trials may not necessarily reflect the real-world clinical practice setting. This study evaluated the real-world effectiveness of dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe AD based on physician global assessment, percent body surface area affected, and patient-reported itch.

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Pathophysiological Role of TLR4 in Chronic Relapsing Itch Induced by Subcutaneous Capsaicin Injection in Neonatal Rats.

Despite the high prevalence of chronic dermatitis and the accompanied intractable itch, therapeutics that specifically target itching have low efficacy. Increasing evidence suggests that TLRs contribute to immune activation and neural sensitization; however, their roles in chronic itch remain elusive. Here, we show that the RBL-2H3 mast cell line expresses TLR4 and that treatment with a TLR4 antagonist opposes the LPS dependent increase in mRNA levels of Th2 and innate cytokines. The pathological role of TLR4 activation in itching was studied in neonate rats that developed chronic itch due to neuronal damage after receiving subcutaneous capsaicin injections. Treatment with a TLR4 antagonist protected these rats with chronic itch against scratching behavior and chronic dermatitis. TLR4 antagonist treatment also restored the density of cutaneous nerve fibers and inhibited the histopathological changes that are associated with mast cell activation after capsaicin injection. Additionally, the expression of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 mRNA in the lesional skin decreased after TLR4 antagonist treatment. Based on these data, we propose that inhibiting TLR4 alleviated itch in a rat model of chronic relapsing itch, and the reduction in the itch was associated with TLR4 signaling in mast cells and nerve fibers.

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Dorsal horn volume loss and pain pathway changes in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia, signs of pain, and phantom scratching.

Central neuropathic pain is a core clinical sign of syringomyelia in humans and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) dogs. This histopathological study used spinal cords from CKCS with syringomyelia to investigate: 1) whether specific structural cervical spinal cord entities involved in nociception are affected by loss of neuroparenchyma or other pathological changes in CKCS with pain-related behaviour and phantom scratching, 2) if pain related behaviour or phantom scratching correlated with loss of a specific anatomical entity or upregulation of glia cells, and 3) if syringomyelia-related lesions affected specific functional spinal cord units of nociception.Spinal cord segments C1-C8 from CKCS with MRI-confirmed syringomyelia and clinical signs of pain and phantom scratch (n=8) were compared to CKCS without syringomyelia (n=4). Dogs with unilateral scratching (n=7) had a volume loss (P=0.043) of the dorsal horn laminae I-III in the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral dorsal horn. A clear pattern of ipsilateral changes in the dorsal root entry zone characterised by deafferentation and reorganization of first-order axons into deeper laminae was found in cases with lateralised scratching. Significant changes in cell number density were not found for astrocytes or microglia, suggesting that the dogs represented cases of end-stage syringomyelia and thus could not reveal astrogliosis and microgliosis, which may be involved in the early phases of syrinx development and phantom scratch.The present relationship between clinical findings and dorsal horn and pain pathway pathology in CKCS suggests that these dogs may be of interest as a supplement to experimental model pain research.

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