Postoperative pain is a major concern for most of the surgical patients, and an inadequate postoperative pain control may cause a series of complications. With an effective pain control and […]Learn More >
General anesthesia (GA) is an unconscious state produced by anesthetic drugs, which act on neurons to cause overall suppression of neuronal activity in the brain. Recent studies have revealed that […]Learn More >
Decades of research have suggested that stimulation of supraspinal structures, such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), inhibits nocifensive responses to noxious stimulation through a process […]Learn More >
The molecular and functional contributions of intratumoral nerves to disease remain largely unknown. We localized synaptic markers within tumors suggesting that these nerves form functional connections. Consistent with this, electrophysiological […]Learn More >
Nociceptors are a class of primary afferent neurons that signal potentially harmful noxious stimuli. An increase in nociceptor excitability occurs in acute and chronic pain conditions. This produces abnormal ongoing […]Learn More >
The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a bulbospinal nuclei in the descending pain modulation system, and directly affects spinal nociceptive transmission through pronociceptive ON cells and antinociceptive OFF cells in […]Learn More >
Opioids are powerful analgesics commonly used in pain management. However, opioids can induce complex neuroadaptations, including synaptic plasticity, that ultimately drive severe side effects, such as pain hypersensitivity and strong […]Learn More >
How nociceptors shape dendritic cell responses.