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Sustained release of levobupivacaine from temperature-sensitive injectable hydrogel for long-term local anesthesia in postoperative pain management.

Postoperative pain is a major concern for most of the surgical patients, and an inadequate postoperative pain control may cause a series of complications. With an effective pain control and […]

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Microglia modulate general anesthesia through P2Y receptor.

General anesthesia (GA) is an unconscious state produced by anesthetic drugs, which act on neurons to cause overall suppression of neuronal activity in the brain. Recent studies have revealed that […]

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Cell type-specific dissection of sensory pathways involved in descending modulation.

Decades of research have suggested that stimulation of supraspinal structures, such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), inhibits nocifensive responses to noxious stimulation through a process […]

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Functional neuronal circuits promote disease progression in cancer.

The molecular and functional contributions of intratumoral nerves to disease remain largely unknown. We localized synaptic markers within tumors suggesting that these nerves form functional connections. Consistent with this, electrophysiological […]

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Identification and Characterization of Pain Processing Patterns Among Patients with Chronic Primary Pain: A replication.

To develop individual and effective treatment plans for patients with chronic pain, we aimed to replicate Grolimund et al’s (2017) empirical categorization of chronic pain patients on a new and […]

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How nociceptors shape dendritic cell responses.

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Open-Source Real-Time Closed-Loop Electrical Threshold Tracking for Translational Pain Research.

Nociceptors are a class of primary afferent neurons that signal potentially harmful noxious stimuli. An increase in nociceptor excitability occurs in acute and chronic pain conditions. This produces abnormal ongoing […]

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Bulbospinal nociceptive ON and OFF cells related neural circuits and transmitters.

The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a bulbospinal nuclei in the descending pain modulation system, and directly affects spinal nociceptive transmission through pronociceptive ON cells and antinociceptive OFF cells in […]

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Opioids induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity in a brainstem pain centre in the rat.

Opioids are powerful analgesics commonly used in pain management. However, opioids can induce complex neuroadaptations, including synaptic plasticity, that ultimately drive severe side effects, such as pain hypersensitivity and strong […]

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