Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental toxicant, is known to cause sensory impairment by inducing neurodegeneration of sensory nervous systems. However, in recent years, it has been revealed that neuropathic pain occurs in the chronic phase of MeHg poisoning, that is, in current Minamata disease patients. Our recent study using Minamata disease model rats demonstrated that MeHg-mediated neurodegeneration in the sensory nervous system may induce inflammatory microglia production in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and subsequent somatosensory cortical rewiring, leading to neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that inhibition of the Rho-associated coiled coil-forming protein kinase (ROCK) pathway could prevent MeHg-induced neuropathic pain because the ROCK pathway is known to be involved in inducing the production of inflammatory microglia. Here, we showed for the first time that Fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, can prevent neuropathic pain in Minamata disease model rats. In this model, Fasudil significantly suppressed nerve injury-induced inflammatory microglia production in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and prevented subsequent somatosensory cortical rewiring. These results suggest that the ROCK pathway is involved in the onset and development of neuropathic pain in the chronic phase of Minamata disease, and that its inhibition is effective in pain prevention.