Myogenous temporomandibular disorders (M-TMDs) are the most common chronic orofacial pain, affecting the masticatory muscles and, thus, jaw movement. While a concise diagnosis is crucial to formulate a rational treatment plan, the similarities in clinical presentations that M-TMDs share with other neuromuscular disorders affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) could easily confuse physicians. In addition to the basics, such as thorough history taking and meticulous clinical examinations, different imaging techniques are useful adjuncts to facilitate the diagnostic process. This review presents an overview of the current understanding on a variety of diagnostic and treatment modalities for M-TMD patients. It is essential to highlight that there is not a single treatment for all, and the benefits of multidisciplinary strategies have been noted for the effective management of myogenous TMD pain. Treatment modalities ranging from conservative to minimally invasive options are discussed in this review.