Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is well-known as a universal source of energy in living cells. Less known is that this molecule has a variety of important signaling functions: it activates a variety of specific metabotropic (P2Y) and ionotropic (P2X) receptors in neuronal and non-neuronal cell membranes. So, a wide variety of signaling functions well fits the ubiquitous presence of ATP in the tissues. Even more ubiquitous are protons. Apart from the unspecific interaction of protons with any protein, many physiological processes are affected by protons acting on specific ionotropic receptors-acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Both protons (acidification) and ATP are locally elevated in various pathological states. Using these fundamentally important molecules as agonists, ASICs and P2X receptors signal a variety of major brain pathologies. Here we briefly outline the physiological roles of ASICs and P2X receptors, focusing on the brain pathologies involving these receptors.