The trigeminal sensory innervation of the cranial meninges is thought to serve a nociceptive function and mediate headache pain. However, the activity of meningeal afferents under natural conditions in awake animals remains unexplored. Here, we used two- and three-dimensional two-photon calcium imaging to track the activity of meningeal afferent fibers in awake mice. Surprisingly, a large subset of afferents was activated during non-noxious conditions such as locomotion. We estimated locomotion-related meningeal deformations and found afferents with distinct dynamics and tuning to various levels of meningeal expansion, compression, shearing, and Z-axis motion. Further, these mechanosensitive afferents were often tuned to distinct directions of meningeal expansion or compression. Thus, in addition to their role in headache-related pain, meningeal sensory neurons track the dynamic mechanical state of the meninges under natural conditions.