Pediatric chronic pain is a significant global issue, with biopsychosocial factors contributing to the complexity of the condition. Studies have explored behavioral treatments for pediatric chronic pain, but these treatments have mixed efficacy for improving functional and psychological outcomes. Furthermore, the literature lacks an understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms contributing to pediatric chronic pain treatment response. In this mini review, we focus on how neuroimaging has been used to identify biobehavioral mechanisms of different conditions and how this modality can be used in mechanistic clinical trials to identify markers of treatment response for pediatric chronic pain. We propose that mechanistic clinical trials, utilizing neuroimaging, are warranted to investigate how to optimize the efficacy of behavioral treatments for pediatric chronic pain patients across pain types and ages.