Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA/NTRK1) is a high-affinity receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF), a potent pain mediator. NGF/TrkA signaling elevates synovial sensory neuronal distributions in the joints and causes osteoarthritis (OA) pain. We investigated the mechanisms of pain transmission as to whether peripheral sensory neurons are linked to the cellular plasticity in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and are critical for OA hyperalgesia. Sensory neuron-specific deletion of was achieved by tamoxifen injection in 4-week-old () mice. OA was induced by partial medial meniscectomy (PMM) in 12-week-old mice, and OA-pain-related behavior was analyzed for 12 weeks followed by comprehensive histopathological examinations. OA-associated joint pain was markedly improved without cartilage protection in sensory-neuron-specific conditional knock-out (cKO) mice. Alleviated hyperalgesia was associated with suppression of the NGF/TrkA pathway and reduced angiogenesis in fibroblast-like synovial cells. Elevated pain transmitters in the DRG of OA-induced mice were significantly diminished in sensory-neuron-specific cKO and global cKO mice. Spinal glial activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were significantly increased in OA-induced mice but were substantially eliminated by sensory-neuron-specific deletion. Our results suggest that augmentation of NGF/TrkA signaling in the joint synovium and the peripheral sensory neurons facilitate pro-nociception and centralized pain sensitization.