Colic, a condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract of horses, manifests as severe pain and may be a life-threatening condition. It is possible to distinguish between an acute, disposable process, as well as recurrent colic symptoms (abdominal pain) caused by an ongoing chronic inflammatory process. This paper presents a retrospective analysis of the histopathological findings of duodenal and rectal samples taken from horses with recurrent colic, with the aim to determine the frequency and extent of inflammation. The samples, i.e., duodenal biopsy (60 samples) and rectal biopsy (17 samples), were taken from 77 horses showing recurrent colic symptoms. Histopathological examination included staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The examination included evaluation of the superficial epithelium, mucosal lamina propria, and submucosa. All samples from the duodenum and rectum showed the presence of leukocyte infiltration in the mucosal lamina propria. The most frequently observed cellular infiltration was a moderate infiltration consisting of lymphocytes and plasma cells in duodenum and mixed populations of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophilia in the rectum. Mott cells were also noted among the inflammatory infiltrates. More than one-fourth of the horses were found to have shortened intestinal villi. The results presented here showed the involvement of inflammation in the course of recurrent colic, which can be both its cause (by impairing motility and absorption) and its effect (as a result of obstruction or ischemia).