Females represent 49.6% of the global population and constitute a significant proportion of surgical patients and hospital admissions. Little is known about the bi-directional effects of sex and anesthetics or the impact of anesthetic interventions on long-term female health outcomes. Sex differences in pain pathways can influence pain experience and treatment effectiveness. The impact of anesthetic management on the recurrence of breast cancer is poorly understood, as are the long-term consequences of cardiovascular disease and safe and effective treatments in pregnancy. This review aims to outline recent advances in translational science in female health anesthesiology research and highlight critical research opportunities in pain, cancer outcomes, and cardiovascular disorders.