The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critical for both the sensory and emotional/cognitive components of pain. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we examined changes in the transcriptomic profiles in the mPFC of mice with chronic pain using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. A mouse model of peripheral neuropathic pain was established via chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. CCI mice developed sustained mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, as well as cognitive impairment four weeks after surgery. RNA-seq was conducted 4 weeks after CCI surgery. Compared with contral group, RNA-seq identified a total 309 and 222 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ipsilateral and contralateral mPFC of CCI model mice, respectively. GO analysis indicated that the functions of these genes were mainly enriched in immune- and inflammation-related processes such as interferon-gamma production and cytokine secretion. KEGG analysis further showed the enrichment of genes involved in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction signaling pathway and Parkinson disease pathway that have been reported to be importantly involved in chronic neuralgia and cognitive dysfunction. Our study may provide insights into the possible mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain and pain-related comorbidities.