We have previously shown that intradermal injection of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (500-1200 kDa) produces localized antihyperalgesia in preclinical models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In the present experiments, we studied the therapeutic effect of topical hyaluronan, when combined with each of 3 transdermal drug delivery enhancers (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], protamine or terpene), in preclinical models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Topical application of 500 to 1200 kDa hyaluronan (the molecular weight range used in our previous studies employing intradermal administration), dissolved in 75% DMSO in saline, markedly reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) hyperalgesia, in male and female rats. Although topical 500- to 1200-kDa hyaluronan in DMSO vehicle dose dependently, also markedly, attenuated oxaliplatin chemotherapy-and paclitaxel chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in male rats, it lacked efficacy in female rats. However, following ovariectomy or intrathecal administration of an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30) mRNA, CIPN in female rats was now attenuated by topical hyaluronan. Although topical coadministration of 150 to 300, 300 to 500, or 1500 to 1750 kDa hyaluronan with DMSO also attenuated CIPN, a slightly lower-molecular-weight hyaluronan (70-120 kDa) did not. The topical administration of a combination of hyaluronan with 2 other transdermal drug delivery enhancers, protamine and terpene, also attenuated CIPN hyperalgesia, an effect that was more prolonged than with DMSO vehicle. Repeated administration of topical hyaluronan prolonged the duration of antihyperalgesia. Our results support the use of topical hyaluronan, combined with chemically diverse nontoxic skin penetration enhancers, to induce marked antihyperalgesia in preclinical models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.