Remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia (RIH) refers to a state of hyperalgesia or aggravated pre-existing pain after remifentanil exposure. There has been considerable interest in understanding and preventing RIH. However, the mechanisms responsible for RIH are still not completely understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a classic innate immune receptor, has been detected in sensory neurons and participates in various nociceptive conditions, whereas its role in RIH remains unclear. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) always serves as a nociceptive channel, whereas its role in RIH has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to determine whether the TLR4 signaling pathway in sensory neurons engaged in the development of RIH and the possible involvement of TRPA1 during this process.