L-theanine (LT), which is a major amino acid found in green tea, was shown to alleviate Vincristine (VCR)-induced peripheral neuropathy and associated neuronal functional changes in rats. To induce peripheral neuropathy, rats were administered VCR at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally on days 1-5 and 8-12, while control rats received LT at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 21 days or saline solution. Electrophysiological measurements were taken to evaluate the nerve functional loss and recovery through motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. The sciatic nerve was examined for several biomarkers, including nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total calcium, IL-6, IL-10, MPO, and caspase-3. The results showed that VCR caused significant hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats; decreased nerve conduction velocity; increased NO and MDA levels; and decreased GSH, SOD, CAT, and IL-10 levels. LT was found to significantly reduce VCR-induced nociceptive pain thresholds, decrease oxidative stress levels (NO, MDA), increase antioxidative strength (GSH, SOD, CAT), and reduce neuroinflammatory activity and apoptosis markers (caspase-3). LT’s antioxidant, calcium homeostasis, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties make it a potential adjuvant to conventional treatment in VCR-induced neuropathy in rats.