Pain disrupts sleep, and sleep deprivation or interference can alter pain perception in animals and humans, for example by increasing sensitivity to pain. However, the mechanism by which sleep affects neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the available evidence from the epidemiologic, clinical, and human, as well as laboratory studies. In previous studies, we have found that sleep deprivation affects various injurious systems, including opioids, dopaminergic, immune, orexins, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and adenosine. At the same time, these systems play a crucial role in neuropathic pain regulation. In the complex interactions between these neurobiological systems, there may be potential regulatory pathways through which sleep deprivation amplifies neuropathic pain. Because of the impact sleep problems and neuropathic pain can have on the patients’ quality of life, studying the link between sleep and neuropathic pain is important for neuropathic pain prevention and public health.