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Papers of the Week

Papers: 4 Feb 2023 - 10 Feb 2023

Basic Science, Psychology

Animal Studies, Molecular/Cellular, Neurobiology

Inflammation/Inflammatory, Psychological/Comorbidities

2023 Jan 28




The stress-induced antinociceptive responses to the persistent inflammatory pain involve the orexin receptors in the nucleus accumbens.


Moteshakereh SM, Nikoohemmat M, Farmani D, Khosrowabadi E, Salehi S, Haghparast A


Stress suppresses the sense of pain, a physiological phenomenon known as stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Brain orexin peptides regulate many physiological functions, including wakefulness and nociception. The contribution of the orexinergic system within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the modulation of antinociception induced by forced swim stress (FSS) remains unclear. The present study addressed the role of intra-accumbal orexin receptors in the antinociceptive responses induced by FSS during the persistent inflammatory pain model in the rat. Stereotaxic surgery was performed unilaterally on 106 adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-305 g. Different doses (1, 3, 10, and 30 nmol/ 0.5 μl DMSO) of orexin-1 receptor (OX1r) antagonist (SB334867) or OX2 receptor antagonist (TCS OX2 29) were administered into the NAc five minutes before exposure to FSS for a 6-min period. The formalin test was carried out using formalin injection (50 μl; 2.5%) into the rat’s hind paw plantar surface, which induces biphasic pain-related responses. The first phase begins immediately after formalin infusion and takes 3-5 min. Subsequently, the late phase begins 15-20 min after formalin injection and takes 20-40 min. The findings demonstrated that intra-accumbal microinjection of SB334867 or TCS OX2 29 attenuated the FSS-induced antinociception in both phases of the formalin test, with the TCS OX2 29 showing higher potency. Moreover, the effect of TCS OX2 29 was more significant during the early phase of the formalin test. The results suggest that OX1 and OX2 receptors in the NAc might modulate the antinociceptive responses induced by the FSS.