Pain is a multifaceted process that encompasses unpleasant sensory and emotional experiences. The essence of the pain process is aversion, or perceived negative emotion. Central sensitization plays a significant role in initiating and perpetuating of chronic pain. Melzack proposed the concept of the “pain matrix”, in which brain regions associated with pain form an interconnected network, rather than being controlled by a singular brain region. This review aims to investigate distinct brain regions involved in pain and their interconnections. In addition, it also sheds light on the reciprocal connectivity between the ascending and descending pathways that participate in pain modulation. We review the involvement of various brain areas during pain and focus on understanding the connections among them, which can contribute to a better understanding of pain mechanisms and provide opportunities for further research on therapies for improved pain management.