Changes in back muscle function and structure are highly prevalent in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Since large heterogeneity in clinical presentation and back muscle dysfunctions exists within this population, the potential role of back muscle dysfunctions in the persistence of low back pain differs between individuals. Consequently, interventions should be tailored to the individual patient and be based on a thorough clinical examination taking into account the multidimensional nature of CLBP. Considering the complexity of this process, we will provide a state-of-the-art update on back muscle dysfunctions in patients with CLBP and their implications for treatment. To this end, we will first give an overview of (1) dysfunctions in back muscle structure and function, (2) the potential of exercise therapy to address these dysfunctions, and (3) the relationship between changes in back muscle dysfunctions and clinical parameters. In a second part, we will describe a framework for an individualised approach for back muscle training in patients with CLBP.