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Papers: 13 Jan 2024 - 19 Jan 2024

2024 Jan 16

Int Immunopharmacol



The preferential effect of Clemastine on F3/Contactin-1/Notch-1 compared to Jagged-1/Notch-1 justifies its remyelinating effect in an experimental model of multiple sclerosis in rats.


Ibrahim SM, Kamel AS, Ahmed KA, Mohammed RA, Essam RM


Clemastine (CLM) is repurposed to enhance remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. CLM blocks histamine and muscarinic receptors as negative regulators to oligodendrocyte differentiation. These receptors are linked to the canonical and non-canonical Notch-1 signaling via specific ligands; Jagged-1 and F3/Contactin-1, respectively. Yet, there are no previous studies showing the influence of CLM on Notch entities. Herein, the study aimed to investigate to which extent CLM aligns to one of the two Notch-1 arms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. Three groups were utilized where first group received vehicles. The second group was injected by spinal cord homogenate mixed with complete Freund’s adjuvant on days 0 and 7. In the third group, CLM (5 mg/kg/day; p.o) was administered for 15 days starting from the day of the first immunization. CLM ameliorated EAE-associated motor and gripping impairment in rotarod, open-field, and grip strength arena beside sensory anomalies in hot plate, cold allodynia, and mechanical Randall-Selitto tests. Additionally, CLM alleviated depressive mood observed in tail suspension test. These findings harmonized with histopathological examinations of Luxol-fast blue stain together with enhanced immunostaining of myelin basic protein and oligodendrocyte lineage gene 2 in corpus callosum and spinal cord. Additionally, CLM enhanced oligodendrocyte myelination and maturation by increasing 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase, proteolipid protein, aspartoacylase as well. CLM restored the level of F3/Contactin-1 in the diseased rats over Jagged-1 level; the ligand of the canonical pathway. This was accompanied by elevated gene expression of Deltex-1 and reduced hairy and enhancer-of-split homologs 1 and 5. Additionally, CLM suppressed microglial and astrocyte activation via reducing the expression of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein, respectively. These results outlined the remyelinating beneficence of CLM which could be due to augmenting the non-canonical Notch-1 signaling over the canonical one.