Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the leading cause of low back pain (LBP) and disability in the elderly, imposing significant public health and economic burden worldwide. Meanwhile, the pathological mechanisms of IDD remain complicated, and treatment strategy to reverse IDD is primarily due to the unclear specific mechanisms of IDD and the lack of particular effective targets. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), one of the most important members of the IL-1 family, can induce solid pro-inflammatory activity by stimulating the secretion of various pro-inflammatory mediators and is considered the key to IDD mediator. However, in recent years, IL-1β is considered to be able to regulate IVD cell death in many ways, such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and so on. At the same time, numerous studies on IL-1β inhibitors suggest that inhibition of IL-1β may be a promising biological therapy for IDD. Many IL-1β inhibitors have been investigated through various pathogenic biological mechanisms, including inhibiting inflammatory processes, regulating ECM degradation, and more. Therefore, anti-IL-1β therapy may have the effect of alleviating disc degeneration. This article mainly reviews the mechanisms and functions of IL-1β in IDD and investigates advances in IL-1β inhibition as a promising biotherapeutic approach for disc degeneration.