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Papers: 30 Sep 2023 - 6 Oct 2023

2023 Sep 27

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract


The Long Road of Long COVID: Specific Considerations for the Allergist and Immunologist.


Bellanti JA, Novak P, Faitelson Y, Bernstein JA, Castells MC


Long COVID (coronavirus disease 2019) syndrome, also known as post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is a new disorder that can develop after an acute infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The condition is characterized by multiorgan system involvement with a wide range of symptoms that can vary in severity from mild to debilitating. Some of the common symptoms associated with long COVID syndrome include cardiovascular issues such as heart palpitations and chest pain; thrombotic events (eg, blood clotting disorders); metabolic problems (eg, type 2 diabetes); dysautonomia; paroxysmal orthostatic tachycardia syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus; the presence of autoantibodies; chronic spontaneous urticaria (hives); and connective tissue diseases. Whereas long COVID syndrome can affect individuals from various backgrounds, certain populations may be at higher risk such as individuals of Hispanic and Latino heritage, as well as those with low socioeconomic status, although approximately one-third of affected patients have no known risk factors or preexisting conditions. Many survivors of COVID-19 struggle with multiple symptoms, increased disability, reduced function, and poor quality of life. Whereas vaccination has been the most significant intervention able to decrease the severity of acute SARS-Cov2 infection and curtail deaths, limited data are available related to its modulating effect on long COVID necessitating the need for further investigation. Furthermore, several inflammatory pathways have been proposed for the pathogenesis of long COVID that are the targets for ongoing clinical studies evaluating novel pharmacological agents. The purpose of the present report is to review the many factors associated with long COVID with a focus on those aspects that have relevance to the allergist-immunologist.