Chronic pain and drug addiction seriously threaten human health and generate a large loss of labor. Most highly addictive drugs are derived from opioids, which have severe side effects and are difficult to quit completely. On the other hand, opioid analgesics are widely used in detoxification for opioid addiction. These opioids are effective for controlling acute withdrawal symptoms, but can be problematic under long-term usage as maintenance therapy. Both chronic pain and opioid abuse are related to neurotransmitters and central reward pathways in the brain. As to provide new weapons for defending human health, this article summarized the similarities and differences between chronic pain and opioid addiction, based on their common neurobiological basis, and discussed the breakthroughs in targeted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, we have brought out an innovative and integrative therapeutic scheme by combining drugs, medical devices, and phycological / behavioral therapies, according to the patient’s individual situation, aiming at achieving better effects against these two types of diseases.