Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain disorder marked by generalized musculoskeletal pain accompanied by depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Galantamine (Gal) is a positive allosteric modulator of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase. The current study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of Gal against reserpine (Res)-induced FM-like condition along with investigating the α7-nAChR’s role in Gal-mediated effects. Rats were injected with Res (1 mg/kg/day; sc) for 3 successive days then Gal (5 mg/kg/day; ip) was given alone and with the α7-nAChR blocker methyllycaconitine (3 mg/kg/day; ip), for the subsequent 5 days. Galantamine alleviated Res-induced histopathological changes and monoamines depletion in rats’ spinal cord. It also exerted analgesic effect along with ameliorating Res-induced depression and motor-incoordination as confirmed by behavioral tests. Moreover, Gal produced anti-inflammatory effect through modulating AKT1/AKT2 and shifting M1/M2 macrophage polarization. The neuroprotective effects of Gal were mediated through activating cAMP/PKA and PI3K/AKT pathways in α7-nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, Gal can ameliorate Res-induced FM-like symptoms and mitigate the associated monoamines depletion, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration through α7-nAChR stimulation, with the involvement of cAMP/PKA, PI3K/AKT, and M1/M2 macrophage polarization.