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Papers of the Week

Papers: 23 Sep 2023 - 29 Sep 2023

Basic Science

Pharmacology/Drug Development



Front Chem



Synthesis, in-vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenases and in silico studies of new isoxazole derivatives.


Alam W, Khan H, Saeed Jan M, Rashid U, Abusharha A, Daglia M


Isoxazole belongs to the class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds. The process of developing new drugs has significantly gained attention due to inadequate pharmacokinetic and safety attributes of the available drugs. This study aimed to design a new diverse array of ten novel isoxazole derivatives via Claisen Schmidt condensation reaction. COX-1/2 anti-inflammatory assay, molecular docking of potent compounds, Molecular docking simulation, and SwissADME pharmacokinetic profile were investigated in this research. The COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory assay showed that almost all the tested compounds exhibited anti-inflammatory effects whereas , , and were found to be the most potent COX-2 enzyme inhibitors among the tested compounds and are good candidates for selective COX-2 inhibitors. molecular docking studies coupled with molecular dynamic simulation has been done to rationalize the time-evolved mode of interaction of selected inhibitor inside the active pockets of target COX-2. The binding orientations and binding energy results also showed the selectivity of compounds towards COX-2. Physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic profile, lipophilicity, water solubility, drug metabolism, drug-likeness properties, and medicinal chemistry of the synthesized isoxazole derivatives were assessed. The SwissADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) database was used to assess the physicochemical properties and drug-likeness properties of the synthesized isoxazole derivatives. All the compounds were shown high GI absorption except Compound 7 (). Compound 1 () and Compound 2 () were found to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Lipinski’s rule of five is not violated by any of the ten synthesized isoxazole derivatives. It was predicted with the SwissADME database that , , , , and are potent inhibitors of cytochrome (CYP) subtype CYP-2C19. A subtype of CYP-2C9 was inhibited by and . The medicinal chemistry of all the compounds – showed no PAIN (Pan assay interference compounds) alerts. The improved gastrointestinal (GI) absorption and BBB permeability of and can provide a future prospective for new researchers in the medicinal field to investigate the compounds for the management of chronic diseases. The synthesized isoxazole compounds showed excellent COX-1/2 enzymes anti-inflammatory investigations, studies, good physicochemical properties, and improved pharmacokinetic profile which will be further investigated via anti-inflammatory activities. Moreover, to further support our findings of the computational research and studies, an pharmacokinetic profile is suggested in the future.