Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has allowed profiling cell types of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and their transcriptional states in physiology and chronic pain. However, the evaluation criteria used in previous studies to classify DRG neurons varied, which presents difficulties in determining the various types of DRG neurons. In this review, we aim to integrate findings from previous transcriptomic studies of the DRG. We first briefly introduce the history of DRG-neuron cell-type profiling, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different scRNA-seq methods. We then examine the classification of DRG neurons based on single-cell profiling under physiological and pathological conditions. Finally, we propose further studies on the somatosensory system at the molecular, cellular, and neural network levels.