It has long been recognized that men and women have different degrees of susceptibility to chronic pain. Greater recognition of the sexual dimorphism in chronic pain has resulted in increasing numbers of both clinical and preclinical studies that have identified factors and mechanisms underlying sex differences in pain sensitization. Here, we review sexually dimorphic pain phenotypes in various research animal models and factors involved in the sex difference in pain phenotypes. We further discuss putative mechanisms for the sexual dimorphism in pain sensitization, which involves sex hormones, spinal cord microglia, and peripheral immune cells. Elucidating the sexually dimorphic mechanism of pain sensitization may provide important clinical implications and aid the development of sex-specific therapeutic strategies to treat chronic pain.