To assess the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) and related variables on surgical site infection (SSI) risk in neuromodulation. This retrospective study followed patients who underwent neuromodulation procedures for at least 9 months to identify postoperative infections. Demographics, clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes were compared. Of 195 cases included, 5 (2.6%) resulted in SSIs. Median HbA1c was significantly higher for the cases with SSIs (8.2 vs 5.6%; p = 0.0044). The rate of SSI was significantly higher among patients with DM (17.9 vs 0%; p = 0.0005), HbA1c≥7% (37.5 vs 0%; p = 0.0009), and perioperative glucose ≥200 mg/dl (40 vs 2.3%; p = 0.0101). DM, elevated HbA1c and perioperative hyperglycemia may all contribute to increased risk of SSIs with neuromodulation procedures.