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Papers of the Week

Papers: 29 Jun 2024 - 5 Jul 2024

2024 Jul 01

Behav Brain Res


Restraint stress-induced antinociceptive effects in acute pain: Involvement of orexinergic system in the nucleus accumbens.


Farmani D, Moteshakereh SM, Nikoohemmat M, Askari R, Salehi S, Haghparast A


The complicated relevance between stress and pain has been identified. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of various brain areas play a role in this communication. Pain inhibitory response is known as stress-induced analgesia (SIA). The studies demonstrated that the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is critical in modulating pain. As a neuropeptide, orexin is crucially involved in initiating behavioral and physiological responses to threatening and unfeeling stimuli. However, the role of the orexin receptors of the NAc area after exposure to restraint stress (RS) as acute physical stress in the modulation of acute pain is unclear. One hundered twenty adult male albino Wistar rats (230-250g) were used. Animals were unilaterally implanted with cannulae above the NAc. The SB334867 and TCS OX2 29 were used as antagonists for OX1r and OX2r, respectively. Different doses of the antagonists (1, 3, 10, and 30 nmol/0.5µl DMSO) were microinjected intra-NAc five minutes before exposure to RS (3hours). Then, the tail-flick test as a model of acute pain was performed, and the nociceptive threshold (Tail-flick latency; TFL) was measured in 60-minute time set intervals. According to this study’s findings, the antinociceptive effects of RS in the tail-flick test were blocked during intra-NAc administration of SB334867 or TCS OX2 29. The RS as acute stress increased TFL and deceased pain-like behavior responses. The 50% effective dose values of the OX1r and OX2r antagonists were 12.82 and 21.64 nmol, respectively. The result demonstrated contribution of the OX1r into the NAc was more remarkable than that of the OX2r on antinociceptive responses induced by the RS. Besides, in the absence of RS, the TFL was attenuated. The current study’s data indicated that OX1r and OX2r into the NAc induced pain modulation responses during RS in acute pain. In conclusion, the findings revealed the involvement of intra-NAc orexin receptors in improving SIA.