Although depression and body weight have individually been associated with chronic pain (CP), it currently remains unclear whether the combination of depressive symptoms (DS) and being underweight/overweight is related to CP. Therefore, we herein investigated the relationships among depression, body mass index (BMI), and CP in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants comprised 2216 inhabitants of Shika town in Ishikawa prefecture, Japan, including 1003 males (mean age of 68.72 years, standard deviation (SD) of 8.36) and 1213 females (mean age of 69.65 years, SD of 9.36). CP and DS were assessed using a CP questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale-15, respectively. The Breslow-Day test indicated that DS positively correlated with lumbar/knee pain in the BMI < 25 group, but not in the BMI ≥ 25 group. Furthermore, lumber/knee pain was related to a higher BMI. These results were confirmed by a logistic analysis with age, sex, BMI, solitary living, the duration of education, no exercise/hobbies, smoking history, alcohol intake, and medical treatment for diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or hypertension as confounding factors. The present study indicates the importance of considering DS and BMI in the prevention of CP. Further studies are needed to clarify the causal relationships among depression, BMI, and CP.