Recently, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) transplantation has been introduced as a promising option to support cartilage structure and improve its function in preclinical models and patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA). MSCs strongly provoke their preferred influence in vivo by inhibiting the inflammatory responses and applying immunomodulation by releasing anti-inflammatory mediators such as transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-10. Such mediators downregulate fibroblast-like synoviocytes growth and migration, leading to chondroprotection. Furthermore, improving the chondrocyte proliferation and extracellular matrix hemostasis in addition to the suppression of the matrix metalloproteinases activities can support cartilage tissue organization. In this light, various published results have demonstrated that MSCs therapy can considerably decrease pain and restore knee function in OA patients. In the current review, we have concentrated on recent advances in MSCs-based therapeutics to elicit both chondrogenic and chondroprotective impacts in OA patients, focusing on the last decade in vivo results.