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Papers: 8 Jun 2024 - 14 Jun 2024

2024 Jun 08

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol


Quantitative summary on the human pharmacokinetic properties of cannabidiol to accelerate scientific clinical application of cannabis.


Jang JH, Jeong JH, Jeong SH


Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive substance that exerts numerous pharmacological benefits, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It has received attention as a useful substance for the treatment of intractable pain, seizures, and anxiety, and related clinical trials have continued. However, the CBD pharmacokinetic results between reports are highly variable, making it difficult to clearly identify the pharmacokinetic properties of CBD. The main purpose of this study was to identify CBD clinical pharmacokinetic properties through meta-analysis. In particular, we sought to derive valid, interpretable independent variables and interpret their pharmacokinetic parameter correlations in relation to the large inter-individual and inter-study variability in CBD pharmacokinetics. For this study, CBD-related clinical trial reports were extensively screened and intercomparisons were performed between internal data sets through systematic classification and extraction of pharmacokinetic parameter values. The candidate independent variables associated with interpretation of CBD pharmacokinetic diversity established and explored in this study were as follows: diet, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) combination, sample matrix type, liver and renal function, exposure route, dosage form, CBD exposure dose, cannabis smoking frequency, multiple exposure. The results of this study showed that CBD pharmacokinetics were influenced (increased plasma exposure by approximately 2-5 times) by diet immediately before or during CBD exposure, and that THC was not expected to have an antagonistic effect on the CBD absorption. The influence of changes in liver function would be significant in CBD pharmacokinetic diversity. Due to decreased liver function, the plasma exposure of CBD increased 2.57-5.15 times compared to healthy adults, and the half-life and clearance showed a 2.58-fold increase and a 5.15-fold decrease, respectively. CBD can be rapidly absorbed into the body (time to reach maximum concentration within 3.18 h) by oral, transdermal, and inhalation exposures, and lipid emulsification and nanoformulation of CBD will greatly improve CBD bioavailability (up to approximately 2 times). The pharmacokinetics of CBD generally follow linear kinetic characteristics. The importance of this study is that it suggests key factors that should be considered in terms of pharmacokinetics in further clinical trials and formulations of CBD in the future.