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Papers of the Week

Papers: 30 Sep 2023 - 6 Oct 2023

2023 Oct 03

Int J Pharm


Quality by design for sumatriptan loaded nano-ethosomal mucoadhesive gel for the therapeutic management of nitroglycerin induced migraine.


Shafique U, Ud Din F, Sohail S, Batool S, H Almari A, A Lahiq A, Al Fatease A, Alharbi HM


Migraine is a progressive neurological condition often accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Various drugs have recently been used in the treatment of migraine, including sumatriptan (SUT). However, SUT has poor pharmacological effects mainly due to its reduced permeability, blood brain barrier (BBB) effect, half-life and bioavailability. Herein, we developed SUT loaded nano-ethosomes (SUT-NEs) for intranasal (IN) delivery, after their incorporation into chitosan based mucoadhesive gel (SUT-NEsG). The observed mean particle size of SUT-NEs was 109.45 ± 4.03 nm with spherical morphology, mono dispersion (0.191 ± 0.001), negatively charged (-20.90 ± 1.98 mV) and with excellent entrapment efficiency (96.90 ± 1.85%). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra have depicted the compatibility of the components. Moreover, SUT-NEsG was homogeneous having suitable viscosity and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro release and ex vivo permeation analysis showed sustained release and improved permeation of the SUT-NEsG, respectively. Additionally, histopathological studies of nasal membrane affirmed the safety of SUT-NEsG after IN application. In vivo pharmacokinetic study demonstrated improved brain bioavailability of SUT-NEsG as compared to orally administered sumatriptan solution (SUT-SL). Furthermore, significantly enhanced pharmacological effect of SUT-NEsG was observed in behavioral and biochemical analysis, immunohistochemistry for NF-κB, and enzyme linked immuno assay (ELISA) for IL-1β and TNF-α in Nitroglycerin (NTG) induced migraine model. It can be concluded that migraine may be successfully managed through IN application of SUT-NEsG owing to the direct targeted delivery to the brain.