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Papers: 25 May 2024 - 31 May 2024

2024 May 23

J Pain


Prevalence and Risk Factors of Multi-type Post-COVID Pain in a Cohort of Previously Hospitalized COVID-19 Survivors: A Danish Cross-Sectional Survey.


Ebbesen BD, Giordano R, Hedegaard JN, Calero JAV, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Rasmussen BS, Nielsen H, Schiøttz-Christensen B, Petersen PL, Castaldo M, Arendt-Nielsen L


This population-based study investigated the prevalence of de novo, multi-type, post-COVID pain and its associated risk factors in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors. The nationwide, cross-sectional study included a cohort of Danish residents previously hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020 and December 2021. Demographic data, pre-existing medical comorbidities, previous pain-related symptoms, medication use for pain management, pain intensity (4-point scale), and development of de novo, multi-type, post-COVID pain were collected by a self-reported survey distributed via e-Boks (a secured national digital mail system used in Denmark to provide public information to residents). The sample comprised 4,712 previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors (48.6% women, mean age: 60.1±15.6 years). At the time of the study (21±6 months after hospitalization), 18.0% (847) reported the presence of de novo, multi-type, post-COVID pain, and 38.6% of any pain. A multivariate analysis revealed that female sex (OR 1.711, 95%CI 1.444-2.023), higher body mass index (OR 1.032, 95%CI 1.019-1.045), intensive care unit admission (OR 1.597, 95%CI 1.324-1.926), previous history of whiplash (OR 2.471, 95%CI 1.004-6.081), anxiety (OR 3.626, 95%CI 1.335-9.708), and younger age (OR 0.982, 95%CI 0.976-0.987) were factors associated with development of de novo, multi-type, post-COVID pain. High income (OR 0.635, 95%CI 0.494-0.817) and high educational level (OR 0.774, 95%CI 0.609-0.984) were protective factors. In conclusion, multi-type pain as a de novo post-COVID symptom was present in 18.0% of previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors more than one year after hospital discharge and as such can be considered as adding to the global burden of chronic pain. PERSPECTIVE: The study investigates the prevalence of de novo, multi-type, post-COVID pain in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors. This article presents potential risk factors associated with developing new pain symptoms. The results will contribute to understanding the possibility of predicting post-infectious pain from COVID-19 for future analysis.