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Papers of the Week

Papers: 8 Jun 2024 - 14 Jun 2024

2024 Jun 10

Neurol Sci


Phantom limb syndrome: from pathogenesis to treatment. A narrative review.


Granata G, Di Iorio R, Ilari S, Angeloni BM, Tomasello F, Cimmino AT, Carrarini C, Marrone A, Iodice F


Phantom Limb Syndrome (PLS) can be defined as the disabling or painful sensation of the presence of a body part that is no longer present after its amputation. Anatomical changes involved in Phantom Limb Syndrome, occurring at peripheral, spinal and brain levels and include the formation of neuromas and scars, dorsal horn sensitization and plasticity, short-term and long-term modifications at molecular and topographical levels. The molecular reorganization processes of Phantom Limb Syndrome include NMDA receptors hyperactivation in the dorsal horn of the spinal column leading to inflammatory mechanisms both at a peripheral and central level. At the brain level, a central role has been recognized for sodium channels, BDNF and adenosine triphosphate receptors. In the paper we discuss current available pharmacological options with a final overview on non-pharmacological options in the pipeline.