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Papers of the Week

Papers: 3 Feb 2024 - 9 Feb 2024

2024 Feb 05



Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Implications of Neuropeptide S System in Neurological Disorders.


Shirsath KR, Patil VK, Awathale SN, Goyal SN, Nakhate KT


Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a 20 amino acids-containing neuroactive molecule discovered by the reverse pharmacology method. NPS is detected in specific brain regions like the brainstem, amygdala, and hypothalamus, while its receptor (NPSR) is ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Besides CNS, NPS and NPSR are also expressed in the peripheral nervous system. NPSR is a G-protein coupled receptor that primarily uses Gq and Gs signaling pathways to mediate the actions of NPS. In animal models of Parkinsonism and Alzheimer’s disease, NPS exerts a neuroprotective role. NPS suppresses oxidative stress, anxiety, food intake, and pain, and promotes arousal. NPSR facilitates reward, reinforcement, and addiction-related behaviors. Genetic variation and single nucleotide polymorphism in NPSR are associated with depression, schizophrenia, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma. NPS interacts with several neurotransmitters including glutamate, noradrenaline, serotonin, corticotropin-releasing factor, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. It also modulates the immune system via augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokines and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. In the present review, we discussed the distribution profile of NPS and NPSR, signaling pathways, and their importance in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders. We have also proposed the areas where further investigations on the NPS system are warranted.