Direct or indirect damage to the nervous system (such as inflammation or tumor invasion) can lead to dysfunction and pain. The generation of pain is mainly reflected in the activation of glial cells and the abnormal discharge of sensory neurons, which transmit stronger sensory information to the center. P2Y12 receptor plays important roles in physiological and pathophysiological processes including inflammation and pain. P2Y12 receptor involved in the occurrence of pain as a sensory information mediator, which enhances the activation of microglia and the synaptic plasticity of primary sensory neurons, and reaches the higher center through the ascending conduction pathway (mainly spinothalamic tract) to produce pain. While the application of P2Y12 receptor antagonists (PBS-0739, AR-C69931MX and MRS2359) have better antagonistic activity and produce analgesic pharmacological properties. Therefore, in this article, we discussed the role of the P2Y12 receptor in different chronic pains and its use as a pharmacological target for pain relief.