Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the onset and the progression of several neuropathologies, from neurodegenerative disorders to migraine, from Rett syndrome to post-COVID 19 neurological manifestations. Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes of the innate immune system that fuel inflammation. They have been under study for the last twenty years and more recently their involvement in neuro-related conditions has been of great interest as possible therapeutic target. The role of oxidative stress in inflammasome activation has been described, however the exact way of action of specific endogenous and exogenous oxidants needs to be better clarified. In this review, we provide the current knowledge on the involvement of inflammasome in the main neuropathologies, emphasizing the importance to further clarify the role of oxidative stress in its activation including the role of mitochondria in inflammasome-induced neuroinflammation.