Nav1.8, a tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) subtype encoded by SCN10A, which plays an important role in the production and transmission of peripheral neuropathic pain signals. Studies have shown that VGSCs may be key targets of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of neuropathic pain. In our study, bioinformatics analysis showed that the targeting relationship between miR-3584-5p and Nav1.8 was the most closely. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of miR-3584-5p and Nav1.8 in neuropathic pain. The effects of miR-3584-5p on chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats was investigated by intrathecal injection of miR-3584-5p agomir (an agonist, 20 μM, 15 μL) or antagomir (an antagonist, 20 μM, 15 μL). The results showed that over-expression of miR-3584-5p aggravated neuronal injury by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and mechanical/thermal hypersensitivity in CCI rats. MiR-3584-5p indirectly inhibited the expression of Nav1.8 by up-regulating the expression of key proteins in the ERK5/CREB signaling pathway, and also inhibited the current density of the Nav1.8 channel, changed its channel dynamics characteristic, thereby accelerating the transmission of pain signals, and further aggravating pain. Similarly, in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cell cultures, miR-3584-5p increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in the mitochondrial pathway, decreased the ratio of apoptosis-related factor Bcl-2/Bax, and thus promoted neuronal apoptosis. In brief, over-expression of miR-3584-5p aggravates neuropathic pain by directly inhibiting the current density of Nav1.8 channel and altering its channel dynamics, or indirectly inhibiting Nav1.8 expression through ERK5/CREB pathway, and promoting apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway.