This study aimed to examine the associated factors of oral glucocorticoid (GC) use in patients with chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) associated with musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) in South Korea. Moreover, we examined whether oral GC use was associated with long-term mortality in patients with CNCP. This population-based cohort study used data from the national registration database in South Korea. Using a stratified random sampling technique, we extracted the data from 2.5% of adult patients diagnosed with MSDs in 2010. Patients with CNCP-associated MSDs who were prescribed oral GC regularly for ≥30 days were defined as GC users, while the other patients were considered to be non-GC users. A total of 1,804,019 patients with CNCP were included in the final analysis, and 9038 (0.5%) patients were GC users, while 1,794,981 (95.5%) patients were non-GC users. Some factors (old age, comorbid status, pain medication use, and MSD) were associated with GC use among patients with CNCP. Moreover, in the multivariable time-dependent Cox regression model, GC users showed a 1.45-fold higher 10-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-1.54; < 0.001) than non-GC users. In South Korea, the 10-year all-cause mortality risk increased in the patients with CNCP using GC.