The Notch gene, a highly evolutionarily conserved gene, was discovered approximately 110 years ago and has been found to play a crucial role in the development of multicellular organisms. Notch receptors and their ligands are single-pass transmembrane proteins that typically require cellular interactions and proteolytic processing to facilitate signal transduction. Recently, mounting evidence has shown that aberrant activation of the Notch is correlated with neuropathic pain. The activation of the Notch signaling pathway can cause the activation of neuroglia and the release of pro-inflammatory factors, a key mechanism in the development of neuropathic pain. Moreover, the Notch signaling pathway may contribute to the persistence of neuropathic pain by enhancing synaptic transmission and calcium inward flow. This paper reviews the structure and activation of the Notch signaling pathway, as well as its potential mechanisms of action, to provide novel insights for future treatments of neuropathic pain.