Periradicular tissues have a rich supply of peripheral afferent neurons, also known as nociceptive neurons, originating from the trigeminal nerve. While their primary function is to relay pain signals to the brain, these are known to be involved in modulating innate and adaptive immunity by initiating neurogenic inflammation (NI). Studies have investigated neuroanatomy and measured the levels of biomolecules such as cytokines and neuropeptides in human saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, or blood/serum samples in apical periodontitis (AP) to validate the possible role of trigeminal nociceptors in inflammation and tissue regeneration. However, the contributions of nociceptors and the mechanisms involved in the neuro-immune interactions in AP are not fully understood. This narrative review addresses the complex biomolecular interactions of trigeminal nociceptors with macrophages, the effector cells of the innate immune system, in the clinical manifestations of AP.