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Papers of the Week

Papers: 8 Jul 2023 - 14 Jul 2023


Human Studies, Neurobiology

Musculoskeletal Pain

2023 Jul 10

Sci Rep




Neuromuscular compartmentation of the subscapularis muscle and its clinical implication for botulinum neurotoxin injection.


Cho TH, Hong JE, Yang HM


In this study, using immunohistochemistry with fresh cadavers, deliberate histological profiling was performed to determine which fibers are predominant within each compartment. To verify the fascial compartmentation of the SSC and elucidate its histological components of type I and II fibers using macroscopic, histological observation and cadaveric simulation for providing an anatomical reference of efficient injection of the BoNT into the SSC. Seven fixed and three fresh cadavers (six males and four females; mean age, 82.5 years) were used in this study. The dissected specimens revealed a distinct fascia demarcating the SSC into the superior and inferior compartments. The Sihler’s staining revealed that the upper and lower subscapular nerves (USN and LSN) innervated the SSC, with two territories distributed by each nerve, mostly corresponding to the superior and inferior compartments of the muscle, although there were some tiny communicating twigs between the USN and LSN. The immunohistochemical stain revealed the density of each type of fiber. Compared with the whole muscle area, the densities of the slow-twitch type I fibers were 22.26 ± 3.11% (mean ± SD) in the superior and 81.15 ± 0.76% in the inferior compartments, and the densities of the fast-twitch type II fiber were 77.74% ± 3.11% in the superior and 18.85 ± 0.76% in the inferior compartments. The compartments had different proportions of slow-fast muscle fibers, corresponding to the functional differences between the superior compartment as an early-onset internal rotator and the inferior compartment as a durable stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint.