While denervation can occur with aging, peripheral nerve injuries are debilitating and often leads to a loss of function and neuropathic pain. Although injured peripheral nerves can regenerate and reinnervate their targets, this process is slow and directionless. There is some evidence supporting the use of neuromodulation to enhance the regeneration of peripheral nerves. This systematic review reported on the underlying mechanisms that allow neuromodulation to aid peripheral nerve regeneration and highlighted important in vivo studies that demonstrate its efficacy. Studies were identified from PubMed (inception through September 2022) and the results were synthesized qualitatively. Included studies were required to contain content related to peripheral nerve regeneration and some form of neuromodulation. Studies reporting in vivo highlights were subject to a risk of bias assessment using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The results of 52 studies indicate that neuromodulation enhances natural peripheral nerve regeneration processes, but still requires other interventions (e.g., conduits) to control the direction of reinnervation. Additional human studies are warranted to verify the applicability of animal studies and to determine how neuromodulation can be optimized for the greatest functional restoration.