Compelling evidence has shown that Neuralized1 (Neurl1) facilitates hippocampal-dependent memory storage by modulating cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3)-dependent protein synthesis. In the current study, we investigated the role of Neurl1 in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms. The neuropathic pain was evaluated by lumbar 5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Immunofluorescence staining, Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) were performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that SNL led to an increase of Neurl1 in the spinal dorsal horn. Spinal microinjection of AAV-EGFP-Neurl1 shRNA alleviated mechanical allodynia; decreased the level of CPEB3 ubiquitination; inhibited the production of GluA1, GluA2, and PSD95; and reduced GluA1-containing AMPA receptors in the membrane of the dorsal horn following SNL. Knockdown of spinal CPEB3 decreased the production of GluA1, GluA2, and PSD95 in the dorsal horn and attenuated abnormal pain after SNL. Overexpression of Neurl1 in the dorsal horn resulted in pain-related hypersensitivity in naïve rats; raised the level of CPEB3 ubiquitination; increased the production of GluA1, GluA2, and PSD95; and augmented GluA1-containing AMPA receptors in the membrane in the dorsal horn. Moreover, spinal Neurl1 overexpression-induced mechanical allodynia in naïve rats was partially reversed by repeated intrathecal injections of CPEB3 siRNA. Collectively, our results suggest that SNL-induced upregulation of Neurl1 through CPEB3 ubiquitination-dependent production of GluA1, GluA2, and PSD95 in the dorsal horn contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain in rats. Targeting spinal Neurl1 might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain.