Mechanical allodynia (MA) is one of the leading clinical symptoms of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN), which is a primary reason for non-traumatic amputations, foot ulceration, and gait abnormalities in patients with diabetes. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of MA have not yet been fully elucidated, and there is no effective treatment. This study aims to study the potential pathogenetic mechanisms of MA and to provide targets for the therapy of MA. A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes in rat models. Subsequently, rats were divided into the control group, the diabetic group without MA, and the diabetic group with MA based on weekly behavioral assays. The differentially expressed lipids in the sciatic nerve of each group were detected using untargeted lipidomics, and the differentially expressed genes in the sciatic nerve of each group were detected by transcriptomics. The pathogenesis of MA was predicted using integrated analysis and validated by immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy. Untargeted lipidomics revealed the accumulation of a more severe lipid in MA rats. Transcriptomics results suggested that differentially expressed genes in MA rats were primarily related to lipid droplets and myelin sheath. Integrated analysis results indicated that the downregulation of Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) expression was closely linked to lipid metabolism disorders. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that down-regulation of CYP1A2 expression occurred in MA rats. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that more severe lipid droplet accumulation and myelin sheath degeneration occurred in MA rats. Our findings imply that the downregulation of CYP1A2 expression leads to disorders of lipid metabolism and further leads to lipid droplet accumulation and myelin sheath degeneration, which might ultimately lead to the development of MA. Therefore, our study contributes to promoting the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MA and providing potential targets for the clinical treatment of MA.