Animal models are invaluable in the research of the pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a chronic aseptic urinary bladder disease of unknown etiology that primarily affects women. Here, a mouse model of IC/BPS was induced with multiple low-dose cyclophosphamide (CYP) applications and thoroughly characterized by RNA sequencing, qPCR, Western blot, and immunolabeling to elucidate key inflammatory processes and sex-dependent differences in the bladder inflammatory response. CYP treatment resulted in the upregulation of inflammatory transcripts such as , , and , which are predominantly involved in innate immunity pathways, recapitulating the crucial findings in the bladder transcriptome of IC/BPS patients. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway was analyzed in detail, and the JAK3/STAT3 interaction was found to be most activated in cells of the bladder urothelium and lamina propria. Sex-based data analysis revealed that cell proliferation was more pronounced in male bladders, while innate immunity and tissue remodeling processes were the most distinctive responses of female bladders to CYP treatment. These processes were also reflected in prominent histological changes in the bladder. The study provides an invaluable reference dataset for preclinical research on IC/BPS and an insight into the sex-specific mechanisms involved in the development of IC/BPS pathology, which may explain the more frequent occurrence of this disease in women.