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Papers of the Week

Papers: 26 Aug 2023 - 1 Sep 2023

Basic Science

Molecular/Cellular, Pharmacology/Drug Development


2023 Aug 22

ACS Omega




Molecular Insights into the Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Indomethacin Analogues.


Ahmad AA, Hussain K, Shah MR, Ashhad Halimi SM, Rabbi F, Ahmad Z, Khan I, Rauf A, Alshammari A, Alharbi M, Rasul Suleria HA


The primary objective of this research was to identify and explore the most potent and efficacious cyclooxygenase inhibitors, utilizing indole acetic acid drugs as a lead molecule. To achieve this objective, various derivatives of the selected lead molecule, indomethacin, were synthesized using a reflux condensation process, targeting the hydroxyl group. The synthesized analogues were subjected to different spectroscopic procedures to determine their structure and confirm their analogues. These derivatives were further screened for acute toxicity and anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity using established protocols. Docking analysis was performed to evaluate the possible protein-ligand interaction. The test compounds were found to be safe at doses of 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p. The pharmacological screening revealed that test compounds had a superior peripheral analgesic effect at a dose of 10 mg/kg, in comparison to the parent drug indomethacin, while compound exhibited slightly lower activity at the same dose. The hot plate results showed lower central analgesic activity of the test compounds compared to the standard Tramal, but it was still significant. Anti-inflammatory results were significant, comparable to Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin, except for compounds , , and at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Molecular docking analysis demonstrated that the derived compounds had augmented negative binding energies (-149.39, -146.72, -160.85, -159.34, -140.03, and -150.91 KJ/mol) compared to the parent drugs (-141.07), which supported the research’s theme of producing stronger derivatives of standard drugs with significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential. The derived compounds exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and, therefore, have the potential to be studied further as new drug candidates for pain and inflammation.