A mixed-dimensional dual-channel synaptic transistor composed of inorganic nanoparticles and organic nanowires was fabricated to expand the photoelectric gain range. The device can actualize the sensitization features of the nociceptor and shows improved responsiveness to visible light. Under electrical pulses with different polarities, the apparatus exhibits reconfigurable asymmetric bidirectional plasticity. Moreover, the devices demonstrate good operational tolerance and mechanical stability, retaining more than 60% of their maximum responsiveness after 100 consecutive/bidirectional and 1000 flex/flat operations. The improved photoelectric response of the device endows a high image recognition accuracy of greater than 80%. Asymmetric bidirectional plasticity is used as punishment/reward in a psychological experiment to emulate the improvement of learning motivation and enables real-time forward and backward deflection (+7 and -25°) of artificial muscle. The mixed-dimensional optoelectronic artificial synapses with switchable behavior and electron/hole transport type have important prospects for neuromorphic processing and artificial somatosensory nerves.