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Papers: 8 Jun 2024 - 14 Jun 2024

2024 Jun 08

Cell Biosci




Mitochondrial mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders.


Wu K, Shieh JS, Qin L, Guo JJ


Chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders characterized by prolonged muscle inflammation, resulting in enduring pain and diminished functionality, pose significant challenges for the patients. Emerging scientific evidence points to mitochondrial malfunction as a pivotal factor contributing to these ailments. Mitochondria play a critical role in powering skeletal muscle activity, but in the context of persistent inflammation, disruptions in their quantity, configuration, and performance have been well-documented. Various disturbances, encompassing alterations in mitochondrial dynamics (such as fission and fusion), calcium regulation, oxidative stress, biogenesis, and the process of mitophagy, are believed to play a central role in the progression of these disorders. Additionally, unfolded protein responses and the accumulation of fatty acids within muscle cells may adversely affect the internal milieu, impairing the equilibrium of mitochondrial functioning. The structural discrepancies between different mitochondrial subsets namely, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal mitochondria likely impact their metabolic capabilities and susceptibility to inflammatory influences. The release of signals from damaged mitochondria is known to incite inflammatory responses. Intriguingly, migrasomes and extracellular vesicles serve as vehicles for intercellular transfer of mitochondria, aiding in the removal of impaired mitochondria and regulation of inflammation. Viral infections have been implicated in inducing stress on mitochondria. Prolonged dysfunction of these vital organelles sustains oxidative harm, metabolic irregularities, and heightened cytokine release, impeding the body’s ability to repair tissues. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of advancements in understanding changes in the intracellular environment, mitochondrial architecture and distribution, biogenesis, dynamics, autophagy, oxidative stress, cytokines associated with mitochondria, vesicular structures, and associated membranes in the context of chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders. Strategies targeting key elements regulating mitochondrial quality exhibit promise in the restoration of mitochondrial function, alleviation of inflammation, and enhancement of overall outcomes.